With the US Africa leaders summit taking place this week, social media has been abuzz with new infographics expressing data about the continent of Africa. Click on each to see the source.
Here are the best ones!
Here’s a collection of some of the best data visualizations on global literacy, mortality, birth rates and more that will help put some of the biggest issues surrounding poverty today into perspective. The good news: Extreme poverty is declining, and life expectancy and incomes on the whole are on the up and up. The bad news: We still have a lot of work to do!
Hans Rosling’s Gapminder project has long been one of the best data visualization tools for understanding how poverty and welfare are changing. Countries’ life expectancies and incomes per person have increased significantly in the past two centuries. This is true for every single country of the world, though needless to say there are some countries that have developed more rapidly than others. Notice how in 1800 the world starts as a clump of consistent figures. But as time progresses, the inequality between countries increases.
Extreme poverty is most commonly referred to as those making under USD $1.25 a day. This statistic is most often brought up to address how there remain areas in the world where people suffer from extreme lack of resources, and are likely stuck in the poverty cycle.
According to a World Bank Report, the nation with by far the highest existence of extreme poverty is India, followed by China and then Nigeria. These are perhaps unexpected countries to encompass the majority of the remaining extreme poor, for they all have relatively high GDPs and boast concentrated sectors of rapid industrialization. Notice how the top ten nations listed are all in Asia and Africa.
Why focus on Africa? Because as you can see from the dark blue coloring, Sub-Saharan Africa is by far the region with the least access to energy. In 2010, the percentage of sub-Saharan African people who lacked proper access to energy was well over 50 percent. Limited or no access to energy has serious implications. Without energy to light up a house, heat a house, refrigerate food or recharge a phone, necessary steps towards improving education, income and health become much more difficult.
The Brookings Institute designed this graphic to show exactly how quickly the number of people living in extreme poverty in the world are disappearing. Starting in the early 2010s, figures turn to predictions of the future, with the green area demonstrating the worst case scenario for future levels of extreme poverty, and purple demonstrating the best. As evident, the number of people (in millions) that are living in extreme poverty is falling dramatically, and all predictions expect a continuation of that decline. Mean daily consumption here is measured in purchasing power parity to allow for a better comparison across nations and regions.
What regions would you expect to have the highest or lowest literacy rates? What are the differences in men and women’s literacy rates? The graph above answers just these questions, showing how “industrialized countries” have near total literacy, where as the MENA and sub-Saharan African countries still have large sections of their population unable to read or write.
The gender gap in literary rates grows more and more apparent with lower total literacy rates. This visualization is merely one graph of a more interactive copulation of data measuring worldwide education by Gregor Aisch, a graphics editor for The New York Times. His additional graphics also depict school enrollment ratios since the Millenium Development Goals were implemented and expenditures on education versus the military.
The world’s population is always changing drastically, with some countries growing rapidly and others shrinking in population size. The Washington Post created this map to show just which countries are growing faster and which have the most negative growth. There is indeed a trend of countries with higher GDPs growing slower or stagnating, while the poorest countries are often the ones growing most rapidly.
This is largely due to the remaining high fertility rates in developing countries even as mortality rates are falling, resulting in enormous population growth. Africa has the most countries with high growth, while Eastern Europe, Russia, and Japan all have shrinking populations.
This visualization is a little trickier to interpret, but it certainly shows how the world is changing. As can be seen at the bottom of the graphic, the majority of the most populous nations in 1950 were in Europe, with China and India sitting atop the list. Today, we see the South American nations of Brazil and Mexico enter the top 12 most populous nations, along with the African nation of Nigeria. The only European nation that remains is Russia.
The forecast for 2050, then, includes 3 African nations, no European nations, and India has replaced China on top. The regional percentage changes in population show how Africa and Asia are predicted to far and away lead the growth. According to the Economist and the ICEF Monitor, “more than half of the extra 2.4 billion people in 2050 will be African. India will swell to 1.6 billion people; it is on track to overtake China in 2028.” As Thomas Malthus can tell you, predictions on population can be tricky. But if the world’s growth rates were to continue as they are, the distribution of people in the world would be quite different from what we see today, and extraordinarily different from what we saw a half century ago.
Curious which nations in Africa are the richest? Above you can see by a simple size-graphic which countries are the wealthiest measured by GDP. The relative sizes of the squares show just how much wealthier South Africa is than the other countries, etc. But fair warning, this graphic shows nothing about each nation’s measure of inequality. To do that, the Gini coefficients, which are numbers between 0 and 1 that measure the inequality of an economy, would also need to be included. Though Nigeria has one of the highest GDPs in Africa, its Gini coefficient and inequality is actually fairly high because the vast majority of wealth is concentrated among a select few.
As mentioned above, birth rates are so important because they are some of the best predictors of population growth rates, which in turn have implications for overall welfare. Notice a similarity in the top 12 countries with the highest number of children per woman? All of them except for Afghanistan and Timor-Leste are in Africa. On this link, you can also check out similar graphics on population, education, and energy.
What is another important determinant of welfare and population growth? Certainly mortality rates. While this visualization is a bit of an assault of information, there are a couple important take-aways. On the left, check out the difference in developing countries and industrialized countries for mortailty rates of children under 5, for which the 2005 data is highlighted in green. Then on the bottom right you can see the 10 countries with the highest infant mortality rates, again all of which are in Africa except for Afghanistan.
This map is especially cool because not only does it show internet access by the location of IP addresses, but it geo-locates internet access against population size. This shows how huge population centers such as India may be lacking proper internet access (in blue), while other places like Australia and the central United States may have total access to the internet even with small populations (red).
This might be the most simplistic graphic of the bunch, but it is also one of the most explanatory. If we were to imagine that the world’s population was comprised of just 100 people, holding constant the demographics that exist today, we can turn the percentage data of these demographics into hard numbers. This allows us to to see how if the world were made of 100 people, 60 of them would live in Asia, 17 of them would not be able to read, and 13 would not have access to clean water. That’s astounding!
It’s true, this is not a music blog. But if you absolutely need this post to be about globalization, development, emerging markets, etc., the association is graspable. Artists from Africa, particularly self-proclaimed rappers, are some of the fastest growing in popularity due to the growing accessibility of their music. And because these artists are sometimes based in the U.S. and Europe, they are picked up by hit record labels that recognize their growing fan base. This means that no only to these names blow up in their home countries; their music is also growing popular in the West. The obsession that many Americans and Europeans once had with Reggae in the Marley era seems to be spreading to a more Sub-Saharan vibe, meeting a new generation’s craving for faster beats and moving lyrics.
Want proof this is what the artists have in mind? His name is Blitz the ‘Ambassador,’ spreading his sound from his country to the world. His album? ‘Afropolitan Dreams.’ Blitz isn’t feigning subtlety, he’s sending a stark message about his place in the industry.
Similarly, check out Baloji, a Congolese (french language) rapper who is smoother and a bit more melodic than Blitz, appealing to a different type of hip-hop fan. Also gold.
Links I Liked:
1. 8 Maps that change the way you look at Africa from ONE
2. Watch the United States grow before your eyes with a time-based gif from Reddit and the Post
3. The End of the Developing World – This I largely disagree with, although some good points are made about rhetoric and how it affects beliefs. But ‘lean’ and ‘fat’ still have positive and negative connotations, and don’t make much sense when describing countries’ economies.
4. Can you live on minimum wage? – an interactive program to see if you could feasibly live off of minimum wage (by US state). Lesson: something important has to be sacrificed.
5. NYTimes Magazine glosses over some pretty improbable science with The Mammoth Cometh, on how extinct species (even mammoths) may one day be brought back to life. But as a diehard Jurassic Park fan this gave me some hope.
Links I Liked:
1. An Economic Analysis of a Drug-Selling Gang’s Finances…
a. The Original Paper by Levitt and Venkatesh
c. This unassociated, but highly related and incredible TV series
2. Financier Plans Big Ad Campaign on Climate Change. Watch how Climate Change is slowly growing into a central issue of governments, and therefore elections. This donor is speeding up that process.
3. Doing Good is not Incompatible with Making a Profit – showing that businesses can make money while maintaining social responsibility, and that non-profits are not the only organizations that should be expected to ‘do good.’
Stop what you’re doing. Take out your phone. Go to the Unicef Tap Project.
Now put your phone down.
By not touching your phone for x minutes (or hours, or days…), the UNICEF Tap project sponsor will make donations for easier access to clean water. It is a reminder of essentials, and in my opinion a very successful way to do so.
The donation amount itself is not groundbreaking (at least on the individual level. If enough people participate then collectively the donation could be quite impactful). But the overall message is what I am impressed with. I pick up my phone at least every hour. At least. On my first attempt at leaving my phone alone, after less than an hour of trying, I had to end the session because I received a call from an unknown number and felt I needed to answer. Why should it be so difficult to briefly give my phone up (especially with substitutes like computers available)?
When considering the difficulty of such a luxury to be left alone, it’s healthy to remember that some lack the access to the real essentials.
This study is a comprehensive economic analysis of Queen Elizabeth National Park’s revenue and expenditures. Queen Elizabeth National Park is located in Southwest Uganda. It is the most visited park in Uganda, welcoming over 34,000 visitors annually and generating more than $1,705,000 US per year in tourist expenditures. The researchers spent three weeks in the field at Queen Elizabeth National Park, and three weeks in the capital city of Kampala, Uganda to assemble a collection of literature, statistics, and interviews with all stakeholders to fully analyze the national park’s current level of economic efficiency. The study includes data on stakeholder incentives and interests, community relations, resource extraction, economic appraisals of wildlife, and accountability. The researchers ultimately concluded that while Queen Elizabeth is currently profitable, it is not yet reaching its full potential for either conservation efforts or revenue generation, largely due to conflicting stakeholder interests and the results of miscommunication. As such, the park is not playing the larger role in national economic development that it could be. Several closing recommendations to increase efficiency, productivity, and sustainable conservation within the park, and expand QENP’s impact on national development are included in this report.
Here is the paper: Balancing Conservation and Development
The annual Gates Letter was released today, highlighting some of the current and popular ‘myths’ of development. These myths include:
“Poor countries are doomed to stay poor,”
“Foreign aid is a big waste,” and
“Saving lives leads to overpopulation.”
The justification for this myth busting, simplified for easy conveyance to readers who may not be as well-versed in development jargon, agrees with much of the current data of growth and aid from the experts, at least from the United States. What this letter succeeds at is putting a (perhaps overly) optimistic spin on the recent history and future of the ‘bottom billion.’ It asserts that aid and development programs have been good for the least developed countries, and that prospects are continually looking up.
The letter also includes a few cool graphics such as this one on the difference between GDP distribution between 1960 and 2012-
You can also check out what some development experts thought of the letter and the accuracy of the debunked myths.